30 Years of AIDS
On June 5, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publish a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) describing cases of a rare lung infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), in five young, previously healthy, gay men in Los Angeles. All the men have other unusual infections as well, indicating that their immune systems are not working; two have already died by the time the report is published. This edition of the MMWR marks the first official reporting of what will become known as the AIDS epidemic.
By year-end, there are a cumulative total of 270 reported cases of severe immune deficiency among gay men, and 121 of those individuals have died.
The City and County of San Francisco, working closely with the Shanti Project and the San Francisco AIDS Foundation, develop the “San Francisco Model of Care,” which emphasizes home- and community-based services.
On April 13, U.S. Representative Henry Waxman convenes the first congressional hearings on HIV/AIDS. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that tens of thousands of people may be affected by the disease.
On September 24, CDC uses the term “AIDS” (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) for the first time, and releases the first case definition of AIDS: “a disease at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known case for diminished resistance to that disease.”
On January 7, CDC reports cases of AIDS in female sexual partners of males with AIDS.
In February, Dr. Robert Gallo, from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), suggests that a retrovirus probably causes AIDS.
In the March 4 edition of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC notes that most cases of AIDS have been reported among homosexual men with multiple sexual partners, injection drug users, Haitians and hemophiliacs. The report suggests that AIDS may be caused by an infectious agent that is transmitted sexually or through exposure to blood or blood products and issues recommendations for preventing transmission.
On May 20, Professor Luc Montagnier, of the Pasteur Institute in France, reports the discovery of a retrovirus named Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV) that could be the cause of AIDS.
On July 25, San Francisco General Hospital opens the first dedicated AIDS ward in the U.S. It is fully occupied within days.
In the September 9 MMWR, CDC identifies all major routes of HIV transmission—and rules out transmission by casual contact, food, water, air or environmental surfaces.
- The Long Island AIDS Project started the first AIDS Family and Bereavement Support Groups on Long Island.
Community-based AIDS service organizations join together to form AIDS Action, a national organization in Washington, DC, to advocate on behalf of people and communities affected by the epidemic, to educate the Federal government, and to help shape AIDS-related policy and legislation.
In June, Dr. Gallo and Professor Luc Montagnier, from the Pasteur Institute in France, hold a joint press conference to announce that Dr. Montagnier’s Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV) and Dr. Gallo’s HTLV-III virus are almost certainly identical and are the likely cause of AIDS.
- The Long Island AIDS Project starts the first support group for people with AIDS.
Ryan White, an Indiana teenager who contracted AIDS through contaminated blood products used to treat his hemophilia, is refused entry to his middle school. He goes on to speak publicly against AIDS stigma and discrimination.
On January 11, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revises the AIDS case definition to note that AIDS is caused by a newly identified virus and issues provisional guidelines for blood screening.
Actor Rock Hudson dies of AIDS-related illness on October 2. Hudson leaves $250,000 to help set up the American Foundation for AIDS research (amfAR). Elizabeth Taylor serves as the founding National Chairman.
At least one HIV case has been reported from each region of the world.
- LIAAC was incorporated, and the following services were established; Bi-lingual Hotline, Case Management, Prevention Education, Support Groups, Pro-bono legal clinic
- LIAAC is the only suburban agency in the country to be awarded funding through the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
AIDS activist Cleve Jones creates the first panel of the AIDS Memorial Quilt.
In May, the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses declares that the virus that causes AIDS will officially be known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
On September 17, President Ronald Reagan mentions AIDS publicly for the first time, vowing in a letter to Congress to make AIDS a priority.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation creates the “AIDS Health Services Program,” providing joint funding with the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) for demonstration projects in hard-hit U.S. cities. This program serves as a precursor to the Ryan White CARE Act.
- LIAAC was asked to facilitate workshops at the National Lesbian and Gay Health Conference/Fifth National AIDS Forum in Los Angeles.
Emmy-award winning pianist, Liberace, dies of AIDS-related illness on February 4.
On March 19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the first antiretroviral drug, zidovudine (AZT). The U.S. Congress approves $30 million in emergency funding to states for AZT—laying the groundwork for what will be the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP), authorized by the Ryan White CARE Act in 1990.
In April, the FDA approves the Western blot blood test kit, a more specific test for HIV antibodies.
In May, the FDA creates a new class of experimental drugs, Treatment Investigational New Drugs, which accelerates drug approval by 2-3 years.
On May 16, the U.S. Public Health Service adds HIV as a “dangerous contagious disease” to its immigration exclusion list and mandates testing for all visa applicants.
In October, the AIDS Memorial Quilt is displayed for the first time on the National Mall in Washington, DC. The display features 1,920 4”x8” panels and draws half a million visitors.
In October, AIDS becomes the first disease ever debated on the floor of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly. The General Assembly resolves to mobilize the entire UN system in the worldwide struggle against AIDS and designates the World Health Organization (WHO) to lead the effort.
The World Health Organization (WHO) declares December 1 to be the first World AIDS Day.
Ryan White, an HIV-positive teenager who has become a national spokesperson for AIDS education, treatment, and funding, testifies before the President’s Commission on AIDS.
Elizabeth Glaser, an HIV-positive mother of two HIV-positive children, and two of her friends form the Pediatric AIDS Foundation (later renamed the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation) advocate for research into the care and treatment needs of children living with HIV/AIDS.
In April, the first comprehensive needle-exchange program (NEP) in North America is established in Tacoma, WA. San Francisco then establishes what becomes the largest NEP in the nation.
Photographer Robert Mapplethorpe dies of AIDS-related illness on March 9.
On June 23, CDC releases the Guidelines for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus to Health-Care and Public-Safety Workers.
The U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) grants $20 million for HIV care and treatment through the Home-Based and Community-Based Care State grant program. For many states, this is their first involvement in HIV care and treatment.
The number of reported AIDS cases in the United States reaches 100,000.
- LIAAC debuts its first original publication “Did You Think You Were Safe in the Suburbs?”
On January 18, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report the possible transmission of HIV to a patient through a dental procedure performed by an HIV-positive dentist. This episode provokes much public debate about the safety of common dental and medical procedures.
Pop artist Keith Haring dies of AIDS-related illness on February 16.
On April 8, Ryan White dies of AIDS-related illness at the age of 18.
In July, the U.S. Congress enacts the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Act prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities, including people living with HIV/AIDS.
In August, the U.S. Congress enacts the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act of 1990, which provides $220.5 million in Federal funds for HIV community-based care and treatment services in its first year. The U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) manage the program, which is the nation’s largest HIV-specific Federal grant program.
On October 26, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves use of zidovudine (AZT) for pediatric AIDS.
- LIAAC Golf and Tennis Open is established.
- AIDS WALK Long Island is established.
The Visual AIDS Artists Caucus launches the Red Ribbon Project to create a visual symbol to demonstrate compassion for people living with AIDS and their caregivers. The red ribbon becomes the international symbol of AIDS awareness.
On July 21, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend restrictions on the practice of HIV-positive healthcare workers and Congress enacts a law requiring states to adopt the CDC restrictions or to develop and adopt their own.
On November 7, American basketball star Earvin “Magic” Johnson announces that he is HIV-positive.
On November 24, Freddie Mercury, lead singer/songwriter of the rock band Queen, dies of bronchial pneumonia resulting from AIDS.
- NYS DOH AIDS Institute awards LIAAC funding to establish our Nutrition for Life meals program, adding home delivery of nutritious meals to our services for our clients who are either at nutritional or financial risk.
AIDS becomes the number one cause of death for U.S. men ages 25 to 44.
On May 27, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) license a 10-minute diagnostic test kit which can be used by health professionals to detect the presence of HIV-1.
Florida teenager Ricky Ray dies of AIDS-related illness on December 13. The 15-year-old hemophiliac and his two younger brothers sparked a national conversation on AIDS after their court battle to attend school led to boycotts by local residents and the torching of their home.
- LIAAC’s Recovery Outreach Peer Program is established.
- The Community Follow–Up Program is established adding Medicaid reimbursed case management to LIAAC’s services.
- LIAAC is featured in a New York Times article, “AIDS Care on the East End,” highlighting our Nutrition for Life program as well as our support groups.
President Clinton establishes the White House Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP).
World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev dies of AIDS-related illness on January 6, and tennis star Arthur Ashe dies on February 3.
On May 7, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approve the female condom.
On December 18, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expand the case definition of AIDS, declaring those with CD4 counts below 200 to have AIDS.
In that same MMWR, CDC adds three new conditions—pulmonary tuberculosis, recurrent pneumonia, and invasive cervical cancer—to the list of clinical indicators of AIDS. These new conditions mean that more women and injection drug users will be diagnosed with AIDS.
- LIAAC partners with NYS AIDS Institute to co-sponsor the first Long Island “HIV/AIDS Bereavement Conference” for health care providers.
AIDS becomes the leading cause of death for all Americans ages 25 to 44.
On February 17, Randy Shilts, a U.S. journalist who covered the AIDS epidemic and who authored “And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic”, dies of AIDS-related illness at age 42.
On December 23, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves an oral HIV test, the first non-blood-based antibody test for HIV.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issues guidelines requiring applicants for grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to address “the appropriate inclusion of women and minorities in clinical research.”
- Long Island Crisis Center names LIAAC’s President and CEO, Dr. Gail Barouh, “Person of the Year.”
On February 23, Greg Louganis, Olympic gold medal diver, discloses that he is HIV-positive.
In June, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the first protease inhibitor. This ushers in a new era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
President Clinton establishes his Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA). The Council meets for the first time on July 28.
On September 22, CDC reviews “Syringe Exchange Programs -- United States, 1994-1995.” The National Academy of Sciences concludes that syringe exchange programs 1995 continued should be regarded as an effective component of a comprehensive strategy to prevent infectious disease.
By the end of the year, 500,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S.
- LIAAC sponsored community forums and advocated for the passage of the Managed Care Bill of rights.
In Vancouver, the 11th International AIDS Conference highlights the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), creating a period of optimism.
The number of new AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S. declines for the first time since the beginning of the epidemic.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approve:
- the first HIV home testing and collection kit (May 14)
- a viral load test, which measures the level of HIV in the blood (June 3)
- the first non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug, nevirapine (June 21)
- the first HIV urine test (August 6)
- LIAAC establishes The New York to the Hamptons Challenge Bike Ride.
In response to the call to “hit early, hit hard,” highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) becomes the new standard of HIV care.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report the first substantial decline in AIDS deaths in the United States. Due largely to the use of HAART, AIDS-related deaths in the U.S. decline by 47% compared with the previous year.
UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS) estimates that 30 million adults and children worldwide have HIV, and that, each day, 16,000 people are newly infected with the virus.
As a greater number of people begin taking protease inhibitors, resistance to the drugs becomes more common, and drug resistance emerges as an area of grave concern within the AIDS community.
- LIAAC’s Consumer Advisory Council is established.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that African Americans account for 49% of U.S. AIDS-related deaths. AIDS-related mortality for African Americans is almost 10 times that of Whites and three times that of Hispanics.
With the leadership of the CBC, Congress funds the Minority AIDS Initiative. An unprecedented $156 million is invested to improve the nation’s effectiveness in preventing and treating HIV/AIDS in African American, Hispanic, and other minority communities.
On April 24, CDC issues the first national treatment guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults and adolescents with HIV.
On June 25, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) cover those in earlier stages of HIV disease, not just those who have developed AIDS.
On November 12, the U.S. Congress enacts the Ricky Ray Hemophilia Relief Fund Act, honoring the Florida teenager who was infected with HIV through contaminated blood products. The Act authorizes payments to individuals with hemophilia and other blood clotting disorders who were infected with HIV by unscreened blood-clotting agents between 1982 and 1987.
- LIAAC is central to the implementation of the NYSDOH HIV Reporting and Partner Notifications Regulations on Long Island.
The World Health Organization (WHO) announces that HIV/AIDS has become the fourth biggest killer worldwide and the number one killer in Africa. WHO estimates that 33 million people are living with HIV worldwide, and that 14 million have died of AIDS.
In March, VaxGen, a San Francisco-based biotechnology company, begins conducting the first human vaccine trials in a developing country—Thailand.
On December 10, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) release a new HIV case definition to help state health departments expand their HIV surveillance efforts and more accurately track the changing course of the epidemic.
- LIAAC sponsors the world’s largest “Living AIDS Awareness Ribbon” in honor of year 2000.
On April 30, President Clinton declares that HIV/AIDS is a threat to U.S. national security.
On May 10, President Clinton issues an Executive Order to assist developing countries in importing and producing generic HIV treatments. 2000 continued In August, the U.S. Congress enacts the Global AIDS and Tuberculosis Relief Act of 2000.
In September, as part of its Millennium Declaration, the United Nations adopts the Millennium Development Goals which include a specific goal of reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB.
In October, the U.S. Congress reauthorizes the Ryan White CARE Act for the second time.
- LIAAC receives it’s first Federal grant from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) - CSAT.
February 7 marks the first annual National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S.
Newly appointed U.S. Secretary of State, Colin Powell, reaffirms the U.S. statement that HIV/AIDS is a national security threat.
After generic drug manufacturers offer to produce discounted, generic forms of HIV/AIDS drugs for developing countries, several major pharmaceutical manufacturers agree to offer further reduced drug prices to those countries.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announce a new HIV Prevention Strategic Plan to cut annual HIV infections in the U.S. by half within five years.
On June 25, the United States announces a framework that will allow poor countries unable to produce pharmaceuticals to gain greater access to drugs needed to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other public health crises.
In July, UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS) reports that HIV/AIDS is now by far the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa, and the fourth biggest global killer. Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa falls from 62 years to 47 years as a result of AIDS.
On November 7, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the first rapid HIV diagnostic test kit for use in the United States that provides results with 99.6 percent accuracy in as little as 20 minutes. Unlike other antibody tests for HIV, this blood test can be stored at room temperature, requires no specialized equipment, and may be used outside of traditional laboratory or clinical settings, allowing more widespread use of HIV testing.
Worldwide, 10 million young people, aged 15-24, and almost 3 million children under 15 are living with HIV. During this year, approximately 3.5 million new infections will 2002 continued occur in sub-Saharan Africa, and the epidemic will claim the lives of an estimated 2.4 million Africans.
- LIAAC purchases its first mobile van, utilized for mobile outreach, HIV testing and immediate linkages to substance abuse treatment.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calculate that 27,000 of the estimated 40,000 new infections that occur each year in the U.S. result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected.
On February 24, VaxGen, a San Francisco-based biotechnology company, announces that its AIDSVAX vaccine trial failed to reduce overall HIV infection rates among those who were vaccinated.
On April 18, CDC announces Advancing HIV Prevention: New Strategies for a Changing Epidemic, a new prevention initiative that aims to reduce barriers to early diagnosis and increase access to, and utilization of, quality medical care, treatment, and ongoing prevention services for those living with HIV.
October 15 marks the first annual National Latino AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S.
On December 1, the World Health Organization (WHO) announces the “3 by 5” initiative, to bring treatment to 3 million people by 2005.
- Agency awarded its first Center for Disease Control and Prevention grant, expanding our HIV testing capability and introducing rapid testing to Long Island.
On March 26, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the use of oral fluid samples with a rapid HIV diagnostic test kit that provides the result in approximately 20 minutes.
On June 10, leaders of the “Group of Eight” (G8) Summit (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) call for the creation of a “Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise,” a consortium of government and private-sector groups designed to coordinate and accelerate research efforts to find an effective HIV vaccine.
- Agency established a new headquarters in a 30,000 square foot state of the art office building in Hauppauge, New York.
- First year that LIAAC is a recipient agency of the Chef’s Secrets fundraiser.
During its annual meeting in January, the World Economic Forum approves a set of new priorities, including one with a focus on addressing HIV/AIDS in Africa and other hard-hit regions.
Also on January 26, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) grants tentative approval to a generic co-packaged antiretroviral drug regimen for use under the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
May 19 is the first annual National Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S.
- LIAAC’s first non HIV/AIDS specific grant awarded from the New York State Department of Health Hunger Prevention Nutrition Assistance Program (HPNAP) allows us to establish our Pantry On Wheels and bring pantry bags to the food insecure living in some of Long Island’s most disenfranchised communities.
- Revised mission statement to reflect that non-HIV related services are an integral part of LIAAC.
- LIAAC received a grant from Federal Office of Minority Health, which includes BiasHELP and EOC of Suffolk as key partners.
- LIAAC receives a grant from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to expand our testing capabilities as well as add Hepatitis C screening to our mobile services.
- LIAAC received funding from NY State Assembly to pilot a Crystal Meth prevention education program.
- LIAAC worked in partnership with LINCS on a NYS tobacco control grant and a Drug Free Communities grant.
June 5 marks 25 years since the first AIDS cases were reported.
March 10 is the first annual National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S.
March 20 is the first annual observance of National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S.
On September 22, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) release revised HIV testing recommendations for healthcare settings, recommending routine HIV screening for all adults, aged 13-64, and yearly screening for those at high risk.
On December 19, the U.S. Congress reauthorizes the Ryan White CARE Act for the third time.
- LIAAC created a new logo for the organization, including the phrase: “Solving the Challenges of HIV”
- Re-named organizational newsletter – from the LIAAC Voice to the LIAAC Challenge.
- LIAAC is awarded the Ryan White Title I Outreach Grant to design and execute mass media HIV/AIDS awareness campaign on Long Island to reach out-of-care individuals. The “I Get Care” Hotline is established.
In June, the Rwandan Government hosts the International HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting. Over 1,500 delegates share lessons on HIV prevention, treatment and care. Co-sponsors include WHO, UNAIDS, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank , and GNP+ (the Global Network of People Living with HIV).
CDC reports over 565,000 people have died of AIDS in the U.S. since 1981.
On August 6, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) release new domestic HIV incidence estimates that are substantially higher than previous estimates (56,300 new infections per year vs. 40,000). The new estimates do not represent an actual increase in the numbers of HIV infections, but reflect a more accurate way of measuring new infections. A separate analysis suggests that the annual number of new infections was never as low as 40,000 and that it has been roughly stable since the late 1990s.
September 18 is the first observance of National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day.
National Gay Men’s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is first recognized on September 27.
- The Federal Office of Minority Health awards LIAAC a grant for a collaborative project with EOC of Suffolk and BiasHELP, Inc. This project, H.I.R.E. (Health Improvements for Re-entering Ex-offenders), is a three pronged approach to provide health, economic and recidivism prevention services to individuals returning to Long Island from federal or state incarceration who are either currently infected with HIV/AIDS or at high risk for infection.
Newly elected President Barack Obama calls for the development of the first National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States.
In February, the District of Columbia Health Department’s HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD, and TB Administration reports that Washington, DC has a higher rate of HIV (3% prevalence) than West Africa– enough to describe it as a “severe and generalized epidemic.” 2009 continued June 8 marks the first annual recognition of Caribbean American HIV/AIDS Awareness Day.
On October 6, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in association with the PEPFAR program, approve the 100th antiretroviral drug.
On October 30, President Obama announces that his administration will officially lift the HIV travel and immigration ban in January 2010 by removing the final regulatory barriers to entry. The lifting of the travel ban occurs in conjunction with the announcement that the International AIDS Conference will return to the United States for the first time in more than 20 years. The conference will be held in Washington, DC, in 2012.
- LIAAC is the only agency on Long Island to be directly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, through a five-year cooperative agreement. This agreement enables LIAAC to continue to conduct HIV Counseling, rapid Testing and Referral as well as introduce Safety Counts, an evidence-based intervention, to at-risk Long Islanders.
- LIAAC is awarded a grant from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention to implement “The Seasoned Adults Project.” This project adds to our comprehensive services, blended Substance Abuse and HIV, Hepatitis C and STD prevention, referral and testing services to at-risk ethnic and/or racial minority older adults (50 and older), who reside in and/or frequent Long Island communities that are burdened with a disproportionate incidence/prevalence of HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse.
On January 4, the U.S. Government officially lifts the HIV travel and immigration ban.
On March 23, President Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which expands access to care and prevention for all Americans—but offers special protections for those living with chronic illnesses, like HIV, that make it difficult for them to access or afford healthcare.
On July 13, the Obama Administration releases the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States.
AIDS Action merges with the National AIDS Fund to form AIDS United.
- LIAAC enters into a sole source agreement with New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH), Bureau of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology to collaborate on the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) research project, a joint effort by the NYSDOH, Bureau of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology (BHAE) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This research is part of a multi‐state, personal interview survey of people at high risk for HIV. The study seeks to collect comprehensive information about sexual and drug-use risk behaviors, HIV testing histories and exposure to and use of HIV prevention services among those at highest risk of infection.
- In recognition of its dedication and commitment for the betterment of the Long Island community, LIAAC is awarded the Bank of America Elena M. Perez Memorial Grant.
Public debate begins on whether the longstanding ban on transplants of HIV-infected organs should be dropped.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) launches the 12 Cities Project, an HHS-wide project that supports and accelerates comprehensive HIV/AIDS planning and cross-agency response in the 12 U.S. jurisdictions that bear the highest AIDS burden in the country.
AIDS activist and award-winning actress Elizabeth Taylor dies on March 23. One of the first celebrities to advocate on behalf of people living with HIV and AIDS, Taylor was the founding national chairman of amfAR (American Foundation for AIDS Research), a nonprofit organization that supports AIDS research, HIV prevention, treatment education, and advocates for AIDS-related public policy.
On June 8, HHS Secretary Sebelius hosted “Commemorating 30 Years of Leadership in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS”.